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Some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. Immuno-compromised persons such as persons with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, persons who have undergone organ transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or other immune system disorders, some elderly, and infants can be particularly at risk from infections. These people should seek advice about drinking water from their healthcare providers. The Environmental Protection Agency and Centers for Disease Control guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk of infection by Cryptosporidium and other microbial contaminants are available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline (800-426-4791). Some people who drink water containing haloacetic acids in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excess of the MCL over many years may experience problems with their liver, kidneys or central nervous systems and may have increased risk of getting cancer.
Cryptosporidium is a microscopic parasite which
is found in surface water throughout the U.S.
and comes from animal waste and run-off.
When ingested, it can result in diarrhea, fever and
other gastrointestinal symptoms. However,
infection can occur not only from drinking
contaminated water but also from eating
contaminated food, from exposure to fecal
contaminated environmental surfaces, and from
person to person by the fecal-oral route.
Person-to-person transmission has been well
documented in day-care centers and hospitals.
Cryptosporidium is eliminated by an effective
treatment combination including coagulation, sedimentation,
filtration, and disinfection. Cleveland
Utilities periodically analyzes both raw and
finished water from each of the water treatment
plants it operates for Cryptosporidium. Source
water monitoring from the Hiwassee river
indicated the presence of Cryptosporidium in 2
out of 9 samples tested in 2007. Source water
monitoring from Waterville Spring indicated no
presence of Cryptosporidium in 9 samples tested
in 2007. There
were a total of 12 samples taken on finished
treatment plant waters in 2003. No
Cryptosporidium were detected in any of the
treatment plants finished water. For more
information on Cryptosporidium, contact the Safe
Drinking Water Hotline (800-426-4791).
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